Posts Tagged ‘new media

#ELRPROMO: “Other Codes / Cóid Eile: Digital Literature in Context”

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In a few days the event “Other Codes / Cóid Eile: Digital Literature in Context” will take place in the Irish city of Galway. The organizer Anne Sofia Karhio, a researcher in the field of electronic literature, accepted the invitation to participate in an interview to promote the event.

This is the first #ELRPROMO, a new topic in the blog that aims to the announcement of forthcoming events in the field of electronic literature.

ELR: Anne Sofia Karhio you are a researcher in the field of electronic literature. When did you start studying electronic literature and what are your main research interests in this field?

Anne Sofia Karhio: I have, like many others working on electronic literature, been trained in more traditional literary scholarship. I studied comparative literature at the University of Helsinki, and then English literature at Trinity College Dublin and finally at the National University of Ireland, Galway, where I got my doctorate and where I’m still based.  I’m not sure whether “traditional” is exactly the right word here, though, as I was always drawn to the more quirky or experimental. My initial interest in electronic literature was also a result of that: I simply became curious about what happens when words move from page to the digital domain, all the strange shapes and forms they can take, and what this means for how we understand language and literary expression. It was only after my PhD that I really started looking into digital literature, and I have to admit that it has been quite a learning experience, though a really rewarding one.

My postdoctoral research project, co-funded by the Irish Research Council and the European Commission via Marie Skłodowska-Curie actions, took me to the University of Bergen to work with Scott Rettberg, Jill Walker-Rettberg and other researchers in electronic literature and digital culture there. It is difficult to explain how life changing that experience was – the research community in Bergen is quite amazing, and really welcoming for newcomers. Due to the Bergen connection I have also been lucky to be able to connect with many well-known scholars, authors and artists, some of whom have since visited Galway – these include Scott Rettberg, Rod Coover, Maria Engberg, Jason Nelson, and Alinta Krauth.

My current research focuses on poetry, technology and landscape, and I’m therefore particularly interested in the shifting border between verbal and visual expression in all kinds of multimodal environments. My research has been largely focused on form, aesthetics, and close reading and analysis, and there has been less of that practical or creative input that characterizes the work of so many scholars of electronic literature. At the same time, practice has started infiltrating my research in all kinds of small and perhaps unexpected ways – like trying out augmented reality apps to explore how these technologies frame the visual environment, and so forth.

ELR: What is your approach to electronic literature? Do you see electronic literature as experimental literature? Do you make a comparative study with other artistic practices?

Anne Sofia Karhio: I have no background in IT or programming, so I have had to learn a lot of things from scratch just to get beyond the level of surface aesthetics of many works. I also continue to work on print poetry as well as digital literature, and want to consider questions of landscape, for example, thematically as well as through the technological platforms and practices. To jump to the last part of that question first, the concept of landscape has its historical roots in the visual arts, so this is a constant point of reference. Overall, I guess it is safe to say that the borders between art forms are currently in turmoil, which means that cinematic expression, music and sound, and all kinds of embodied and haptic technologies are also increasingly relevant. It can be a little bit of a balancing act, sometimes, to retain an openness to these developments, and still keep a focus on the specific topic of one’s research. But I suppose as a researcher I’m most comfortable in inhabiting that transition zone, historically as well as aesthetically. For me, the new digital homes for literature were never a sign that literature would be discarding print to embrace the digital; rather, there is a range of transformative exchanges between these two domains.

It is hardly controversial to say that experimentation often characterizes electronic literature, not least because of the relative novelty of the medium. Many dislike the term “new media”, as computer technologies as well as electronic literature have been around for decades. I speak of “new media technologies” in my own research, but more in the sense of technologies that are new, rather than New Media as shorthand for late 20th-early 21st century digital technologies. This also allows for a historical perspective: I’m quite interested in the work of poets who relate the current historical moment to how writers and artists engaged with the technological changes in the Victorian era, for example – the “new media” of that period. The Northern Irish poet Sinéad Morrissey is a wonderful example of that.

I suppose that like any other art form, electronic literature can be conventional or experimental, depending on whether it repeats pre-existing forms and practices, or finds new ways of challenging them. But one does encounter particularly many practitioners who are drawn to the idea of testing new methods of creativity and dissemination. There is more than a hint of that eccentric scientist mentality, and of course the question is how patience with scholarship and aesthetic craft relate to the fascination of the “new”. And then there is the issue of aesthetic and artistic communities, and the national and cultural institutions that foster them (or fail to do so). Experimentation and artistic license are not part of the culture in quite the same way in different countries. Ireland, for example, has produced pretty revolutionary experimental writers, like Beckett and Joyce – but they did their experimentation elsewhere, for reasons that relate to the culture and society here. Experimental literary communities may have found it more challenging to prosper in Ireland, for various reasons, though there are individual scholars and practitioners who are testing new platforms here, too, like Jeneen Naji in Maynooth, the electronic literature author Michael J. Maguire, or James O’Sullivan who runs New Binary Press. Not to even mention quite a few younger researchers that are curious about the field.

ELR: In 2015 you co-organized the ELO2015 Conference “The End(s) of Electronic Literature” and co-edited the Conference Program and Festival Catalog. What are in your opinion some of the most important outcomes of that event?

Anne Sofia Karhio: The ELO2015 conference was quite an overwhelming experience, partially due to the sheer number of proposed papers and art works. The diversity of the material covered in the catalog, for example, makes it quite difficult to make any kind of a generalizing statement on the conference contributions thematically or even technologically. But the conference topic or title, “End(s) of Electronic Literature”, does suggest a certain coming of age of the field, I think, though perhaps those who have been a part of the organization longer might be better equipped to evaluate that. I believe there were varying opinions on that title, and whether it reflected some kind of pessimism regarding the future of electronic literature, e-lit being “done”. But more than that, I’d say it reflected a historical moment of a kind of coming of age – now that electronic literature has been practiced for decades, and has more institutional recognition, there is also a need to reflect on its purpose, its changing forms, and perhaps even its key concepts in a way that may not have been similarly possible before. What the ELO2015 conference certainly highlighted for me was that the sheer variety of what is now covered under the term “electronic literature” is such that it raises all kinds of questions, mostly very interesting ones, on what we understand even by the term “literature” in a wider sense. The question is far from new, but we can now approach it from new perspectives.

ELR: From 11-12 May 2017 the conference “Other Codes / Cóid Eile: Digital Literature in Context” will take place. What will be the topics discussed on this occasion?

Anne Sofia Karhio: I spent quite a long time trying to find the right phrasing for the title of the conference. The term “context” is not entirely groundbreaking, of course, but here it partially stems from this sense that formal, aesthetic and technological questions still overshadow an awareness of that extra-literary (or extra-artistic) terrain from which electronic literature, too, emerges. It is interesting – and sometimes slightly frustrating – to see how the old debate regarding formalism and aesthetics versus cultural identity or context still keeps repeating itself, even in the field of electronic literature. But I’d like to go beyond that and seriously consider how literature in the digital domain can offer a new aesthetics for social critique, how new technologies make it possible to examine the more sinister aspects of the new digital society from within in the context of globalization, for example, and how questions of linguistic difference now also assume a new relevance. The bilingual title of the conference, “other codes” as well as the Irish language “cóid eile”, is not there just for a bit of exotic cultural flavor! I’d like to think that the approaches of the invited speakers that we will hear from at this event reflect the variety of ways in which “context” can be understood: Sandy Baldwin, Jessica Pressman, María Mencía and Scott Rettberg have all engaged with it differently, like looking at non-Western electronic literatures and global issues, questions of gender and sexuality, precedents in literary movements in the 20th century, multimodal art practices, and aesthetic communities or new genres.

ELR: What do you hope or foresee for the future of electronic literature?

Anne Sofia Karhio: I think as humanities scholars we are naturally equipped to defend the importance of art and literature and have a sense of how they shape the human experience, and how they profoundly interrogate our relationship with the non-verbal as well as the non-human domain. But the more I learn about how digital media technologies impact on our environment, and how their connections to all kinds of questions of economic and political power, surveillance and control work, the more convinced I am that literary scholars and practitioners, as well as digital artists in other fields, have a huge responsibility to make visible (sometimes literally!) what these technologies do what they are used for, and what possibilities of expression, agency, or resistance they give us. Digital arts and humanities are too often understood merely as applying new technologies to humanities research on established forms of cultural expression. This might sound a little bit bombastic or lofty, but I think if we are at all worthy of calling ourselves humanities scholars, we also have to do the opposite (and this is what so many practitioners of electronic literature already do): we must apply the rigor and critical force of humanities creativity and scholarship to all aspects of the digital. Too much is at stake for us to leave the digital for the engineers alone. The old joke applies: science can tell you how to clone a dinosaur – humanities can tell you whether it might be a good or a bad idea!


Intervista con Fabrizio Venerandi

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ELR:  Nel 2010 hai pubblicato due ebook. Le Polistorie sono una novità assoluta! Come funziona l’ipertesto negli ebook ?

Fabrizio Venerandi: Penso che l’ipertesto sia uno strumento estremamente interessante per la costruzione di interactive fiction. Quello che ci siamo proposti con la collana delle polistorie è di uscire dai ghetti e abbandonare l’idea che la narrativa non lineare sia una sperimentazione. Le sperimentazioni ci sono già state, abbiamo un linguaggio elettronico che ormai ha più di quarant’anni e che è pronto a diventare un territorio delle storie e non solo delle tecniche con cui raccontarle. È stato interessante per me, come curatore di collana e anche autore di un testo, vedere come scrittori tra loro molto differenti alle prese con lo stesso strumento retorico, l’ipertesto, abbiano dato vita a idee di mondi completamente diversi. I primi cinque testi che abbiamo pubblicato dal 2010 fino ad oggi spaziano dall’interactive fiction, alle storie a bivio, agli iperromanzi di natura calviniana, a vere e proprie opere letterarie multi-lettura. Tutti gli scrittori hanno proposto opere di narrativa interattiva matura, perché ormai il linguaggio elettronico fa parte della vita di ognuno: è nella rete, nella comunicazione, nell’informazione, nelle idee. L’ebook è un luogo molto più accogliente del libro per sviluppare queste forme di racconto.

ELR: Sei anche il fondatore della casa editrice digitale Quintadicopertina. Cosa prevedi per il futuro dell’industria editoriale?

Fabrizio Venerandi: Penso che avverrà una separazione, graduale ma sempre più decisa, tra una letteratura tradizionale e letteratura digitale. Buona parte dei testi digitali continueranno ad essere testi pensati per la tipografia e poi convertiti in formato elettronico. Ma a fianco a questi prenderanno vita in maniera autonoma storie, didattiche, contenuti pensati per una fruizione del tutto digitale. Anche al di fuori del formato ebook.

ELR: Gia nel 1990 hai compiuto un lavoro pioneristico con il primo Multi User Dungeon italiano «NeoNecronomicon». Secondo te esiste un rapporto tra narrativa e video games? Cosa ne pensi della “creazione letteraria” nei video games e gli “elementi ludici” nelle opere letterarie

Fabrizio Venerandi: La scrittura è gioco, lo è sempre stata. È curioso che uno dei primi documenti della letteratura italiana sia un indovinello, no? Il videogioco ha radici nelle storie e nei testi, non fosse altro per ragioni storiche: il testo consuma molta meno memoria delle immagini, a livello di byte.  Molti dei mondi grafici on-line sorretti da poderose GPU sono stati già teorizzati e sviluppati come mondi testuali, anzi, sotto alcuni aspetti la gestione di mondi virtuali interattivi gestiti da stringhe testuali è assai più intrigante e sostenibile dei corrispettivi grafici. Anche in Italia, realtà di simulazione come Little Italy o The Gate possono essere oggi esempi importanti di come ribaltare e ripensare i concetti legati a scrittore, lettore, autonomia della storia, fabula e intreccio. Forse sono esempi più importanti adesso che allora. Il romanzo interattivo o non lineare esplicita i giochi di interazione tra scrittore e lettore che sono già in nuce nella narrativa tradizionale. Pensa a un normale romanzo giallo: il disseminare di indizi la narrazione, non è forse un gioco? L’intreccio delle storie dell’Orlando, non è un invito al lettore a ricostruirne i labirinti, così come i piani temporali o l’apparato di note dell’Infinite Jest di Wallace?  La separazione di questi due mondi è proprio legata ai quei ghetti di cui parlavo sopra: esiste una letteratura alta, che non sa di giocare, e una talmente bassa da non volere diventare letteratura. Mi piace pensare che il digitale possa diventare un terreno comune di scambio tra gioco e narrazione. Forse nella tradizione orale questo elemento giocoso di invenzione e contaminazione era più evidente e non è un caso che il gioco di ruolo nasca proprio da una applicazione della narrazione vocale.

ELR: In che modo la letteratura elettronica si inserisce nella tradizione letteraria del libro a stampa? Si può parlare di letteratura sperimentale

Fabrizio Venerandi: Guarda, io penso che la letteratura elettronica non sia una novità, ma che sia la messa in pratica di cose che si potevano fare anche prima. È un iper-messa in pratica: si espandono idee che sulla carta ad un certo punto trovavano limiti strutturali che nel digitale sono molto più morbidi. E talvolta non ci sono proprio. Quando sento dire che la letteratura ipertestuale è solo una sperimentazione anni settanta, penso che anche parte notevole della letteratura stampata è stata una sperimentazione. Io ancora mi meraviglio dei mille trucchi che si sono inventati durante i secoli per avere i link sulla carta: vocaboli in ordine alfabetico, mappe, indici analitici, note a piè di pagina, di capitolo, note al margine, corollari, riferimenti incrociati, stanze, paragrafi, numeri di verso, parentesi, incisi… fino alle esplicitazioni popolari del novecento, come i librogame. Incredibile tutto questo desiderio di rendere vivo il testo, di farlo interloquire con altri elementi interni ed esterni al libro stesso. Altro che sperimentazioni! Il digitale è uno dei tanti punti di arricchimento di un percorso di narrare che è millenario.

ELR: I new media si caratterizzano per le costanti modificazioni. Come si può prevenire il rischio di perdere i dati di un’opera di e-literature?

Fabrizio Venerandi: Intanto dando alla letteratura elettronica la dignità artistica e culturale che ancora oggi non ha. La critica accademica si è tenuta distante dai lavori di interactive fiction pubblicati. Le recensioni arrivano dai lettori e spesso hanno al centro la forma tecnologica della narrazione e non la narrazione. Gli ebook non si recensiscono, anzi, ancora oggi perdura una visione libro-centrica, dove l’unica forma di sapere è quella del tomo stampato e dove l’unica forma di narrativa è il romanzo ottocentesco.  C’è quindi, prima di tutto, bisogno di un lavoro di critica di quello che sta succedendo oggi nel digitale. Non si può preservare correttamente quello che non si sa cosa sia. Per questo  sono importanti  progetti come quelli dell’Electronic Literature Collection, ma è necessaria anche una letteratura ad ampio respiro su queste forme di scrittura e lettura contemporanee. Poi serve una buona dose di progettualità anche da parte dei creatori, produttori e distributori di queste opere. L’utilizzo di formati aperti con specifiche pubbliche, aiuta sicuramente la longevità dei testi naturalmente digitali. Meno – forse – la creazione di oggetti software legati a questa o quella piattaforma hardware.